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A collision that is likely the production of a top quark-antiquark pair as it is seen in the CMS detector is shown in Figure 1. Such a collision is expected to contain an electron, a muon, two energetic jets, and a large amount of missing energy. The measured running of the top quark mass is shown in Figure 2. The result provides the first indication of the validity of the fundamental quantum effect of the running of the top quark mass and opens a new window to test our understanding of the strong interaction. While a lot more data will be collected in the future LHC runs starting with Run 3 in , this particular CMS result is mostly sensitive to uncertainties coming from the theoretical knowledge of the top quark in Quantum Chromodynamics.
To witness the top quark mass running with even higher precision and maybe unveil signs of new physics, theory developments and experimental efforts will both be necessary. In the meantime, watch the top quark run! Watching the top quark mass run.
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Sea quarks form when a gluon of the hadron's color field splits; this process also works in reverse in that the annihilation of two sea quarks produces a gluon.
The result is a constant flux of gluon splits and creations colloquially known as "the sea". Despite this, sea quarks can hadronize into baryonic or mesonic particles under certain circumstances. Under sufficiently extreme conditions, quarks may become deconfined and exist as free particles.
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In the course of asymptotic freedom , the strong interaction becomes weaker at higher temperatures. Eventually, color confinement would be lost and an extremely hot plasma of freely moving quarks and gluons would be formed. This theoretical phase of matter is called quark—gluon plasma. A recent estimate puts the needed temperature at 1. The quark—gluon plasma would be characterized by a great increase in the number of heavier quark pairs in relation to the number of up and down quark pairs. Given sufficiently high baryon densities and relatively low temperatures — possibly comparable to those found in neutron stars — quark matter is expected to degenerate into a Fermi liquid of weakly interacting quarks.
This liquid would be characterized by a condensation of colored quark Cooper pairs , thereby breaking the local SU 3 c symmetry. Because quark Cooper pairs harbor color charge, such a phase of quark matter would be color superconductive ; that is, color charge would be able to pass through it with no resistance. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the particle. For other uses, see Quark disambiguation.
Elementary particle. A proton is composed of two up quarks , one down quark , and the gluons that mediate the forces "binding" them together.
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The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Murray Gell-Mann George Zweig See also: Standard Model. See also: Electric charge. See also: Spin physics. Main article: Weak interaction. See also: Color charge and Strong interaction. See also: Invariant mass. See also: Flavor particle physics. See also: Color confinement and Gluon. Main article: QCD matter. Physics portal. Color—flavor locking Neutron magnetic moment Preons Quarkonium Quark star Quark—lepton complementarity. This probability is directly proportional but not equal to the magnitude squared V ij 2 of the corresponding CKM entry.
Retrieved 29 June Carithers; P. Grannis Beam Line. Retrieved 23 September Bloom; et al. Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL.. Breidenbach; et al. Wong Introductory Nuclear Physics 2nd ed. Wiley Interscience. Peacock The Quantum Revolution. Greenwood Publishing Group. Povh; C. Scholz; K. Rith; F.
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Physics Letters B. Bibcode : PhLB.. Decamp; et al. Fisher Popular Science. Barrow . The Origin of the Universe Reprint ed.